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This is the development version of VERSO; for the stable release version, see VERSO.

Viral Evolution ReconStructiOn (VERSO)

Bioconductor version: Development (3.20)

Mutations that rapidly accumulate in viral genomes during a pandemic can be used to track the evolution of the virus and, accordingly, unravel the viral infection network. To this extent, sequencing samples of the virus can be employed to estimate models from genomic epidemiology and may serve, for instance, to estimate the proportion of undetected infected people by uncovering cryptic transmissions, as well as to predict likely trends in the number of infected, hospitalized, dead and recovered people. VERSO is an algorithmic framework that processes variants profiles from viral samples to produce phylogenetic models of viral evolution. The approach solves a Boolean Matrix Factorization problem with phylogenetic constraints, by maximizing a log-likelihood function. VERSO includes two separate and subsequent steps; in this package we provide an R implementation of VERSO STEP 1.

Author: Daniele Ramazzotti [aut] , Fabrizio Angaroni [aut], Davide Maspero [cre, aut], Alex Graudenzi [aut], Luca De Sano [aut]

Maintainer: Davide Maspero <d.maspero at>

Citation (from within R, enter citation("VERSO")):


To install this package, start R (version "4.4") and enter:

if (!require("BiocManager", quietly = TRUE))

# The following initializes usage of Bioc devel


For older versions of R, please refer to the appropriate Bioconductor release.


To view documentation for the version of this package installed in your system, start R and enter:

Introduction HTML R Script
Running VERSO HTML R Script
Reference Manual PDF


biocViews BiomedicalInformatics, Sequencing, Software, SomaticMutation
Version 1.15.0
In Bioconductor since BioC 3.12 (R-4.0) (3.5 years)
License file LICENSE
Depends R (>= 4.1.0)
Imports utils, data.tree, ape, parallel, Rfast, stats
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Suggests BiocGenerics, BiocStyle, testthat, knitr
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Follow Installation instructions to use this package in your R session.

Source Package VERSO_1.15.0.tar.gz
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macOS Binary (x86_64) VERSO_1.15.0.tgz
macOS Binary (arm64) VERSO_1.15.0.tgz
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